Kidney Stones


Stone disease is among the most painful and prevalent urological disorders.  More than a million kidney stone cases are diagnosed each year with an estimated 10 percent of Americans destined to suffer from kidney stones at some point in their lives.


Once stones form in the urinary tract, they often grow with time and may change location within the kidney. Some stones may be washed out of the kidney by urine flow and end up trapped within the ureter or pass completely out of the urinary tract. Stones usually begin causing symptoms when they block the outflow of urine from the kidney leading to the bladder because it causes the kidney to stretch.

Usually, the symptoms are:

  • sharp, cramping pain in the back and lower abdomen, which may spread to the groin.
  • blood in the urine
  • nausea and/or vomiting
  • the need to urinate more often
  • a burning sensation during urination


Stone size, the number of stones and their location are perhaps the most important factors in deciding the appropriate treatment for a patient with kidney stones. The composition of a stone, if known, can also affect the choice of treatments. Options for surgical treatment of stones include:

  • Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
  • Ureteroscopy (URS)
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)
  • Open or laparoscopic surgery